Выращивание белокочанной капусты в открытом грунте

Капуста имеет несколько видов и разновидностей. Белокочанная, краснокочанная, савойская, брюссельская, брокколи, кольраби и это ещё не весь перечень.
 В этой статье говорится о наиболее распространённом виде капусты: белокочанной, которая делится по срокам созревания на раннеспелую, среднеспелую и позднеспелую, а также о выращивание белокочанной капусты в открытом грунте.

 

 

 


 

Содержание:

Выбор семян капусты

Посев семян капусты на рассаду

Посадка рассады капусты в грунт

Уход за капустой

 


 

 Выбор семян капусты

 

Выбор семян капусты

 Прежде всего, надо знать, для каких целей выращивается овощ. Если для получения ранней зелени, то и семена должны быть капусты раннеспелой. Для еды в летний период и использования в заготовках лучше подходят среднеспелые сорта, а для длительного хранения отдают предпочтение поздним сортам капусты.
 Если перед посевом семена обработать стимулятором роста улучшится качество прорастания. Это может быть Эпин, Спилк, Гумат и др., но есть сорта, которые нельзя мочить. Об этом говорится в инструкции на упаковке с семенами. Чтобы избежать неприятностей, необходимо с ней ознакомиться.

 

Посев семян капусты на рассаду

 

Посев семян капусты на рассаду

 Ящики, с плодородной и, хорошо дренируемой, землёй готовят заранее. Перед посевом обильно поливают и высевают семена не глубже, чем на 1 см. Ёмкости накрывают стеклом или плёнкой, чтобы земля не пересыхала, и держалось тепло. Необходимая температура для прорастания семян 18-20 °С. Как только появятся росточки, стекло, или плёнку, убирают. Температуру снижают до 14-16 °С. Для ранних сортов капусты, эта работа проводится с начала марта и до середины месяца, среднеспелые можно высевать, начиная с 25 апреля и в течение двух следующих недель, а поздние сорта сеют, начиная с первых чисел апреля.

 

 Посадка рассады капусты в грунт

 

Высадка рассады капусты в грунт

 После появления первых настоящих листочков рассаду пикируют: пересаживают в ящики большего размера, с углублением ростка до семядолей. Можно высадить в торфяные горшочки. Так сеянцы получают больше питания. Через полтора месяца роста рассада капусты должна иметь от 5 до 7 хорошо развитых листьев и достигать высоты 15-18 см.
 В таком виде она может быть высажена на грядку. Но прежде её надо закалить. В течение недели необходимо выносить ящики с рассадой на балкон, на 1 или 2 часа. Нужно позаботиться о защите от солнца. Затем сокращается полив, и рассада остаётся на балконе ещё на неделю.
 Капусту высаживают в лунки, куда добавляется по горсти торфа, перегноя, спичечный коробок древесной золы. Всё это перемешивается с почвой, поливается и прямо в грязь высаживается капуста.

 

Уход за капустой

 

Уход за капустой в открытом грунте

 Самый трудоёмкий период выращивания капусты завершён. Далее нужен полив, подкормка, прополка, рыхление.
 Вода для капусты очень важна. Надо постоянно поддерживать участок, где растёт капуста во влажном состоянии. Но её излишки приведут к растрескиванию кочанов в период созревания, поэтому полив прекращают за месяц до начала уборки урожая.
 Подкормку проводят трижды: первую – когда рассада прижилась, по срокам это около двух недель после высадки, разведённым настоем коровяка (1 л. настоя на десятилитровую лейку). А спустя ещё две недели проводят такую же подкормку. В то время, когда начнут завязываться кочаны, капусте необходимы калийные и фосфорные удобрения.
 Важно также не упустить из вида такую работу, как окучивание. Это позволяет растению укрепить свою корневую систему.

 

 Капуста – овощ древний, но до сих пор любим и востребован. Не смотря на то, капуста довольно-таки капризна, она выращивается, практически, на каждом дачном участке.

 

Другие статьи:

 

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